Echinochloa frumentacea

Family (Traditional)Poaceae
Species:Echinochloa frumentacea Link
Common NameBillion Dollar Grass; Japanese Millet
Growth Habitgraminoid
Plant Notes**
CharacteristicsArmaments: No; Milky Sap: No; Photosynthetic: Yes; Stipules: No; Woody Herbaceous: Herbaceous; Duration: Annual; General Ecology: Terrestrial; Growth Habit: graminoid; Region of Origin: Asia; Reproductive Phenology: May; Reproductive Phenology: June; Reproductive Phenology: July; Reproductive Phenology: August; Reproductive Phenology: September; Reproductive Phenology: October; Leaf Arrangement: alternate; Leaf Arrangement: basal; Leaf Complexity: simple; Leaf Dissection: 0; Leaf Persistance: Deciduous; Leaf Petiole Type: sessile; Leaf Type: grass-like; Leaf Venation: parallel; Leaflet Margins: entire; Leaflet Number: 0; Base Flower Color: Brown (incl. Maroon); Base Flower Color: Green; Fruit Dehiscence: No; Fruit Type: Caryopsis; Fruit Type: Grain; Fruit Wet/Dry: Dry; Hypanthium Present: No; Ovary Position: Superior; Overall Flower Symmetry: N/A; Perianth Present: No; Placentation Type: Parietal; Placentation Type: Basal; Sporangium Arrangement: N/A
C value N/A
StatusNot Native; AGCP (UPL), EMP (UPL) (NWPL); TN[SNA] KY[SNA] (State Rank); GNR (Global Rank)
Specimen(s) View and Download Specimen Details »

** Not applicable or data not available.

Currently no photos are available for this plant.

Species Distribution Map

This species has been reported in the counties highlighted in the interactive distribution map below. Click on a county to display the its name. Click the question mark icon () to view additional information about the ecoregions shown. In the map legend, there are links to toggle the visibility of the ecoregions and/or their labels. In addition, clicking on an ecoregion name will highlight that region on the map.

  • State Boundaries
  • Counties
  • Counties - Species Present
  • Southeastern Plains
    • Blackland Prarie
  • Blue Ridge Mountains
  • Ridge and Valley
  • Cumberland Plateau
  • Cumberland Mountains
  • Allegheny Plateau
  • Interior Plateau
    • Bluegrass Region
    • Nashville Basin
    • Pennyroyal Karst Plain
    • Western Highland Rim
    • Eastern Highland Rim


SynonymFull Citation
Echinochloa colona var. frumentacea Echinochloa colona var. frumentacea (Roxb.) Ridl.
Echinochloa crus-galli var. edulis Echinochloa crus-galli var. edulis Honda
Echinochloa crusgalli var. edulis Echinochloa crusgalli var. edulis Hitchc.
Echinochloa crusgalli var. frumentacea Echinochloa crusgalli var. frumentacea
Oplismenus frumentaceus Oplismenus frumentaceus (Roxb.) Kunth
Panicum crus-galli var. edule Panicum crus-galli var. edule (Hitchc.) Thell. ex de Lesd.
Panicum crus-galli var. edulis Panicum crus-galli var. edulis (Hitchc.) Makino & Nemoto
Panicum crus-galli var. frumentaceum Panicum crus-galli var. frumentaceum (Roxb.) Trimen
Panicum frumentaceum Panicum frumentaceum Roxb.

Specimens and Distribution

This species has been reported in the following counties by the herbaria listed. An overview of the individual specimens are provided in the table that follows. Click on the accession number to view details; click on column headers to sort.

Counties included on distribution map: Lyon (KY), McCracken (KY), Trigg (KY), Stewart (TN)

Herbaria represented by specimen data listed below: APSC

Range of years during which specimens were collected: -

Accession No. (click for full details) County State Coll. Date Collector &
Collection No.
Herbarium &
Herbarium Name Used
APSC0063525 McCracken Kentucky
Echinochloa frumentacea
APSC0033246 Stewart Tennessee
Echinochloa frumentacea
APSC0033245 Stewart Tennessee
Echinochloa frumentacea
APSC0033270 Trigg Kentucky
Echinochloa frumentacea
APSC0033243 Trigg Kentucky
Echinochloa frumentacea
APSC0033244 Trigg Kentucky
Echinochloa frumentacea
APSC0033242 Lyon Kentucky
Echinochloa frumentacea
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